Apostolic Succession Part 2: Heresy, Hooligans, and the Holy

This article is a continuation of a previous post, where I begin my three article journey responding to Zach. In this piece I will look at Apostolic Succession through a historical lens, bringing together many of the “Fact Checks” from my previous post. We will clearly define what is meant by Apostolic Succession and why theological cohesion was sought by the early Church, as well as the condemnation of heresy. In my next article I will discuss scriptural and historical evidence for Apostolic Succession. As with many debated topics, Apostolic Succession can be made into a straw man by its … Continue reading “Apostolic Succession Part 2: Heresy, Hooligans, and the Holy”

What Is the Deal with Mary?

About a year ago, a friend asked me to write about Mary and why Apostolics (Catholics and Orthodox) have such a unique affinity for the Mother of God (Theotokos). So I am now acting upon that request! This article is not meant to seek to prove why one (or any) devotion to the Blessed Mother is good and holy, but simply to reflect on the history of Early Christian attitudes towards Mary and present some current day examples of Marian devotion. While I hope to encourage all readers in a greater appreciation for Mary and her unparalleled role among the … Continue reading “What Is the Deal with Mary?”

On the Crusades and Their Significance for Christianity

Shellfish. Starving children in Africa. The Crusades. In a normal, rational world, these three subjects would be as far apart from each other topically as they are physically. In religious debate between an uninformed atheist and an unprepared Christian, however, these three topics are the conversation’s bread and butter. Having grown up in the church with an interest in theology and philosophy, I have been able to debunk these for years. To my annoyance, while the value behind these posits has been erased completely, the posits themselves subsist in some sort of perverted strength in numbers. I post this article … Continue reading “On the Crusades and Their Significance for Christianity”

Four Reasons to be a Theology Major

Recently I have been working on putting together a portfolio all theology majors need to arrange in order to graduate from Loyola University Chicago. Part of the process is to look through the best of my papers and post a few of them demonstrating I have attained the different knowledge areas. In addition, I had to write a reflection on my theology major, what I have gained from it, and what I seek to do with it in the future. As I look through these papers I am reminded of all the knowledge I attained and how my mind has … Continue reading “Four Reasons to be a Theology Major”

Religious Freedom in the Original Colonies


We all hear about American founding principles, including freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the right to self-defense, and many others. Yet we less often hear about the fact that these founding principles were, in many ways, a crossover between competing sets of values. We even less often think about the fact that these sets of values remain in contest with one another to this day. The history of religious freedom in three of the most important colonies (Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia) says quite a bit about the contrasting sets of principles that compete for American values. I am uncertain … Continue reading “Religious Freedom in the Original Colonies”